Diabetes, Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases News Chronicle Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Heart Diseases. Article 57
Published on September 15, 2016 at 10:30 PM


Risk To Insulin Resistance With Air Pollution

A study done by scientists from the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) shows traffic related air pollution increases risk to the development of insulin resistance and development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Prediabetes individuals are at risk to effects of air pollution. Researchers came to conclusion after interviewing, physically examining and analyzing data of nearly 3,000 KORA study individuals. It was already established through scientific studies that exposure to air pollution increases risks to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Lead author of the study is Dr Kathrin Wolf, senior scientist at German Research Center for Environmental Health and the study results were published in the journal Diabetes.


       
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KORA study : KORA stands for Cooperative Health Research in the Region Augsburg. KORA is a research platform started in 1996 for pollution based studies and surveys. It is located in Augsburg, district in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.

Insulin resistance : Insulin is a hormone produced by beta cells (in pancreas within the body). After food digestion, it will be converted into glucose and released into blood stream. Glucose levels in blood stream starts raising. Simultaneously our body starts making insulin depending upon glucose levels and releases into blood stream. When insulin calls cells for absorption of glucose, cells respond and absorb glucose from blood and subsequently sugar levels falls to normal range. This is healthy insulin sensitivity. Under insulin resistance condition, cells will not respond to insulin calls for absorption of glucose and glucose levels in blood remains at elevated levels. Subsequently beta cells increases insulin production leading to high levels of insulin in the blood stream. Insulin resistance contributes development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). An individual can reverse insulin resistance by reducing weight and doing daily physical exercise.

 

About Glycemic Index GI Of Food Item

A recent study shows glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) values vary widely and it is not a reliable indicator for blood sugar response to a particular food item. Researchers examined results of blood sugar response to eating same amount of white bread at different times in 63 healthy adults for over 12 weeks. The blood sugar values varied by 20 percent among individuals and by 25 percent between participants. Researchers conclude that glycemic index is not a reliable and preferable indicator and can't be used in food labeling and dietary guidelines. Lead author of the study is Dr Nirupa Rachel Matthan, Tufts University, Boston and study results were published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.


       
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Glycemic index : Glycemic index (GI) is a number linked with a particular food item which indicates body blood sugar levels in response to eating it.

 

Discovery Gene Destroying Insulin Producing Cells
It is known fact that beta cells of type 2 diabetes (T2D) individual will be destroyed due to prolonged existence of high sugar and fat levels in the body. But previous studies failed to find out the mechanism behind beta cells destruction process. Now British researchers analyzed more than 31,000 genes associated with pancreas and discovered TNFR5 gene that destroys beta cells in response to prolonged existence of high sugar and fat levels in an individual with type ii diabetes (T2D). From the laboratory tests, they discovered prevention of beta cells destruction in type 2 diabetes (T2D) individuals by blocking TNFR5 gene. Research team was led by Dr Mark Turner from Nottingham Trent University, U.K and their findings were reported in the journal Cell Death and Disease.

       
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Beta cells : Beta cells store, generate and release insulin hormone, which is required to move glucose from blood stream to living cells in the body. They exists in islets areas within pancreas. An individual gets type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease due to destruction of beta cells.

 

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