A study by scientists from the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) shows traffic-related air pollution increases the risk of the development of insulin resistance and development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Prediabetes individuals are at a risk of the effects of air pollution. Researchers came to conclusion after interviewing, physically examining and analyzing data of nearly 3,000 KORA study individuals. It was already established through scientific studies that exposure to air pollution increases the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Lead author of the study is Dr. Kathrin Wolf, senior scientist at German Research Center for Environmental Health and the study results were published in the journal Diabetes.
KORA study : KORA stands for Cooperative Health Research in the Region Augsburg. KORA is a research platform started in 1996 for pollution based studies and surveys. It is located in Augsburg, the district in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
Insulin resistance : Insulin is a hormone produced by beta cells (in pancreas within the body). After food digestion, it will be converted into glucose and released into the bloodstream. Glucose levels in bloodstream start raising. Simultaneously our body starts making insulin depending upon glucose levels and releases into the bloodstream. When insulin calls cells for absorption of glucose, cells respond and absorb glucose from the blood and subsequently sugar levels fall to normal range. This is healthy insulin sensitivity. Under insulin resistance condition, cells will not respond to insulin calls for absorption of glucose and glucose levels in the blood remains at elevated levels. Subsequently, beta cells increase insulin production leading to high levels of insulin in the bloodstream. Insulin resistance contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). An individual can reverse insulin resistance by reducing weight and doing daily physical exercise.
A recent study shows glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) values vary widely and it is not a reliable indicator for blood sugar response to a particular food item. Researchers examined results of blood sugar response to eating the same amount of white bread at different times in 63 healthy adults for over 12 weeks. The blood sugar values varied by 20 percent among individuals and by 25 percent between participants. Researchers conclude that glycemic index is not a reliable and preferable indicator and can't be used in food labeling and dietary guidelines. Lead author of the study is Dr. Nirupa Rachel Matthan, Tufts University, Boston and the study results were published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
It is known fact that beta cells of type 2 diabetes (T2D) individual will be destroyed due to the prolonged existence of high sugar and fat levels in the body. But previous studies failed to find out the mechanism behind beta cells destruction process. Now British researchers analyzed more than 31,000 genes associated with pancreas and discovered TNFR5 gene that destroys beta cells in response to the prolonged existence of high sugar and fat levels in an individual with type ii diabetes (T2D). From the laboratory tests, they discovered prevention of beta cells destruction in type 2 diabetes (T2D) individuals by blocking TNFR5 gene. The research team was led by Dr. Mark Turner from Nottingham Trent University, U.K and their findings were reported in the journal Cell Death and Disease.
Beta cells : Beta cells store, generate and release insulin hormone, which is required to move glucose from the bloodstream to living cells in the body. They exist in islets areas within the pancreas. An individual gets type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease due to the destruction of beta cells.
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Published by Jammi Vasista, Chennai, India.