Type ii diabetes (T2D) drug Xultophy (insulin/liraglutide) manufactured by Danish firm Novo Nordisk is an insulin-based combination therapy drug. The European Commission approved it during 2014. Now the company got approval for expanded use as drug trials (LIRA-RENAL trials) with oral glucose-lowering medicines shows improved glycaemic control. Side effects such as weight gain and hypoglycemia too reduced. There is marked reduction of HbA1c and low rate of hypoglycemia.
Symptoms of low blood sugar levels or hypoglycemia in an individual are
HbA1c : HbA1c stands for glycated hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in the red blood cells and they supply oxygen to all cells in the body. Along with oxygen, they collect glucose and becomes glycated. We get average blood sugar levels over a period of three months by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as the lifespan of a red blood cell is four months. As the HbA1c value increases, the risk of diabetes (and diabetes-related diseases) increases. This test is a reliable indicator of the blood glucose levels and diabetes.
All living cells in our body make and respond to tiny amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). When living cells were stressed due to disease, they make tiny quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) from the enzymes to keep mitochondria generating energy and cells to function. High blood sugar or glucose levels (called hyperglycemia) damages endothelial cells that contain mitochondria and make mitochondria inefficient and leaky. A study on mouse models shows newly developed AP39 diabetes drugs can be used to target hydrogen sulfide gas present in our blood vessel cells to restore the efficiency of the mitochondria and prevent blood vessels complications (in heart, eye and kidneys) in diabetes patients. The research team was led by Matthew Whiteman from the University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, England and the study results were published in the journal Pharmacological Research.
Mitochondria : Mitochondria is a specialized and organized structure in our body's living cells and each cell contains mitochondria varying from a single unit to thousands. Mitochondria perform the biochemical process of aerobic cellular respiration (glucose is oxidized and release energy. Nutrients converted into adenosine triphosphate, ATP) and release waste products such as carbon dioxide CO2.
Hyperglycemia : Excess sugar or glucose levels in the blood, an important indicator of diabetes and is called as hyperglycemia. Main reasons for hyperglycemia is consumption of excess carbohydrates than normal and leading sedentary life. Hyperglycemia can lead to severe health complications such as nerve damages, kidney diseases etc. Main symptoms of hyperglycemia are
A study involving over 76,000 people shows that the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be reduced by 62 percent in those individuals having highest amounts of Vitamin D. Researchers says Vitamin D reduces insulin sensitivity and reduce blood sugar levels.
Vitamin D : Vitamin D is essential for the body for the absorption of minerals from the food such as calcium, phosphate, magnesium, iron and zinc. Vitamin D prevents softening and weakening of bones (rickets disease) in children and soft or fragile bones (called osteomalacia disease) in adults. This vitamin is available in few foods and added to other foods as dietary supplements. Our skin can make vitamin D from sun's ultraviolet rays. Our body can store excess vitamin D quickly in fatty fat and release it when required.
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Published by Jammi Vasista, Chennai, India.