Diabetes, Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases News Chronicle.  Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Heart Diseases
 Article 52
    Published on September 4, 2016


About Long Rapid Short-Intermediate Insulin From Novo Nordisk

There are basically 4 types of insulin

  • Rapid-acting insulin will be used along with long-acting insulin. Insulin reaches bloodstream between 10 to 30 minutes and control blood sugar levels between 3 to 5 hours. This insulin taken before meals to prevent raising blood sugar levels.
  • Short-acting insulin will be used along with long-acting insulin. Insulin reaches bloodstream between 30 to 60 minutes and control blood sugar levels up to 12 hours. This insulin will be taken 30 minutes before meals to prevent raising blood sugar levels.
  • Intermediate-acting insulin will be often used either with rapid-acting or with short-acting insulin and is usually taken two times in a day. Insulin reaches bloodstream in 90 to 240 minutes and controls blood sugar levels up to 24 hours. When rapid-acting insulin stops working then this type of insulin starts controlling blood sugar levels.
  • Long-acting insulin often is taken either with rapid-acting or with short-acting insulin and is usually taken once or twice per day. Insulin reaches bloodstream in 48 to 240 minutes and controls blood sugar levels up to 24 hours. When rapid-acting insulin stops working then this type of insulin starts controlling blood sugar levels.

Long-acting insulin and short-acting insulin are not compatible with each other and so not possible to combine them in a single injection. But Danish-based Novo Nordisk company developed co-formulation of both types of insulin in a single pen device. This co-formulation will simplify insulin treatment with fewer injections, flexible, affordable, convenient for people with diabetes.




       
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About T-Cells And c-Rel Protein

White blood cells are of two types and both of them helps our body immune system. Bone marrow develops one type of white cell and it is known as "B-cells". The B-cells job is to produce antibodies. A lymphoid organ in vertebrates produces another type of white cells and known as T-cells (or T-lymphocytes). T-cells job is the body immune response. T-cells again can be classified as


  • Killer T-cells scan our body and destroy cells infected by germs
  • Helper T-cells (or Th-cells) regulate our immune system and provide help to other white blood cells
  • The regulatory T-cells (old name suppressor T cells) prevents autoimmune diseases and modulate the immune system

c-Rel is a protein plays important role in B-cells production and survival.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that affects 5% of the population and more than 30 million in U.S. citizens affected by diabetes. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) impairs T-cells or T-lymphocytes cells those are circulating in the body. When T-cells are impaired, subsets of T-cells are unchecked and destroy needed body cells such as insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. With the destruction of insulin producing beta cells, an individual will be affected by type 1 diabetes (T1D).

A study done by researchers from the Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland Ohio identified the root cause for an abnormal immune response for the type 1 diabetes (T1D). Researchers created genetically engineered mice model for the c-Rel protein experiment. Researchers say


  • Diabetes development in mice with 100% deficient c-Rel protein is at a twice faster rate
  • Mice without c-Rel protein had 75-80 percent reduction in T regulatory cells that suppress autoimmunity
  • Deficient in c-Rel protein leads to acceleration of development of autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D)
  • Researchers say c-Rel protein needed for the function of two different types of T-cells or T-lymphocytes (killer T-cells and helper T-cells)
  • Mice with lacking c-Rel protein developed diabetes within 17 weeks and were not healthy

Lead author of the study was Dr. Parameswaran Ramakrishnan Ph.D and the study findings were published in Diabetes.




       
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