Diabetes, Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases News Chronicle.  Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Heart Diseases
 Article 113
    Published on January 17, 2017


Decrease Risks With Sauna Bathing

Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) done by researchers from University of Eastern Finland. Study results indicate taking sauna bath for 4 to 7 times in a week reduces Alzheimer's disease risk by 65 percent and dementia risk by 66 percent. Sauna bath reduces blood pressure. Reduced blood pressure increased blood circulation to all organs and decrease in risks to diseases.


In sauna bath, room temperature varies between 160°F to 195°F. Stoves or rocks can be used to generate heat. An individual can get benefits with sauna baths such as muscle relaxation and lower blood pressure levels.




       
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Transforming Alpha Cells Into Beta Cells

A study done by researchers from CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Austria shows a new way of treating type 1 diabetes (T1D) by transforming glucagon discharging alpha cells into insulin discharging beta cells. Pancreatic islets (also called islets of Langerhans) consist of five types of cells to regulate blood sugar levels. They are


  • Alpha cells consist of 15 to 20 percent of total islet cells. Alpha cells discharge glucagon hormone. Blood sugar levels rise when glucagon hormone stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose.
  • Beta cells consist of 65 to 80 percent of total islet cells. Beta cells discharge insulin and amylin hormone. Insulin hormone helps in reducing sugar levels in the blood. Amylin hormone helps in preventing spikes in blood sugar levels and slowing gastric emptying.
  • Delta cells consist of 3 to 10 percent of total islet cells. Delta cells discharge somatostatin hormone. Somatostatin hormone terminates release of other hormones discharged in the pancreas.
  • Gamma cells consist of 3 to 5 percent of total islet cells. Gamma cells discharge pancreatic polypeptide hormone. Polypeptide hormone regulates both the endocrine and exocrine pancreatic discharges.
  • Epsilon cells consist of less than 1 percent of total islet cells. Epsilon cells discharge ghrelin protein. Ghrelin protein stimulates hunger.

It was known from previous studies that glucagon discharging alpha cells can turn into insulin discharging beta cells with the help of epigenetic regulator known as aristaless related homeobox (Arx). Artemisinins drugs are a group of drugs used to treat malaria. These drugs can cause loss of Arx in the pancreas and transform and reshape glucagon discharging alpha cells into insulin discharging beta cells.


Researchers experiment with mice, zebrafish and rats were successful. Researchers say the long-term effect of artemisinins needs to be tested. Researchers need to devise a method to protect newly transformed beta cells from cell destroying immunity system for a new type 1 diabetes (T1D) treatment. Lead author of the study is Stefan Kubicek and the study findings were published in the journal Cell.




       
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Glycogen : The liver forms larger molecule glycogen from glucose and stores it in the liver, muscles and in the bloodstream. In order to maintain normal blood sugar levels, the liver has the capability to convert glucose into glycogen and glycogen into glucose. Carbohydrates are the main source for the creation of glycogen. The Liver can create glycogen from fat and protein but with lower efficiency.

 

FDA Approval Of Jardiance Drug

United States FDA approved Jardiance oral drug, the first treatment of its kind, intended to reduce risk and death due to cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Jardiance drug trial shows the drug can reduce heart attack and stroke risks. Jardiance oral tablet is manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim, a German pharmaceuticals company. This medication is intended to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) individuals only. They will not work for type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients and patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.




       
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